3.18.2013

矛盾的民主 -- 卡蘿˙鄧肯論十九世紀末的美國公立美術館(上) Democracy in Contradiction -- Carol Duncan on the Public Museums of the U.S. at the End of the Nineteenth Century (Part II)



20130315 Update     / 林心如

卡蘿˙鄧肯(Carol Duncan)在《趨向文明的儀式:探索公立美術館》(Civilizing Rituals : Inside Public Art Museums, 1995年由Routledge初版)書中,主張美術館乃作為特定的塑造公民(civilizing)的儀式之場景;她以法國羅浮宮(Louvre)、英國倫敦國家藝廊(National Gallery)等為檢視對象,說明這些藝術機構的形成和發展如何受到所屬背景的政治、經濟、歷史、文化等因素所影響【註1】。書中的〈公家空間、私人利益: 紐約和芝加哥的市立美術館〉(Public Spaces, Private Interests: Municipal Art Museums in New York and Chicago)一文論析了十九世紀末、二十世紀初在美國的創建公立美術館熱潮;作者指出:由當地企業鉅子主導的這番事業雖然基於超越政治和階級的民主論調,然而,若仔細審視這批美術館的發展過程和各階段的特定現象,將發現有許多和所宣稱的理念扦挌之處。

奠基於對全民開放的教育理念而建立的紐約大都會美術館(Metropolitan Museum of Art/Met)實際上實施門票制,並且長期以來週日閉館,而未能嘉惠窮人或勞工階級,抵觸了館方宣稱的民主訴求。

攝影:Dave Sag

In Civilizing Rituals: Inside Public Art Museums (1995, Routledge), Carol Duncan argues that museum settings represent specific scenarios of civilizing rituals. She examines examples such as the Louvre Museum, the National Gallery of London and other institutions and illustrates how the formation and development of these art institutions were influenced by political, economic, historical and cultural factors of their original contexts
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Chapter 3 of the book, ‘Public Spaces, Private Interests: Municipal Art Museums in New York and Chicago’ analyzes the wave of new public museums in the U.S. at the end of the nineteenth century and at the start of the twentieth century. Duncan explains that even though successful local entrepreneurs took up the museum-building task on the basis of democratic ideas and beyond political and class interests, the actual developments of these museums and certain phenomena in their various stages reveal to be contradictory with their stated intentions.




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